The writer D.H. Lawrence described the raid in a letter to Lady Ottoline Morrell:[30]. the development of a "bloody paralyzer of an aeroplane" to Bombs were dropped on the eastern suburbs of London but many of the incendiaries failed to ignite and five aircraft crashed when attempting to land. Ca 5 series of bombers were the most advanced produced in Italy during Many damaged aircraft limped back to their airfields only to be lost in landing accidents. Also, unoccupied French cities and other targets were close to the front, German press reports mention a raid carried out on 27 October, but there is no British record of any incident on this date. [citation needed], The first night raid by the Gothas took place on 3 September against Chatham, as an experiment by five aircraft. One of the leading advocates, Konteradmiral Paul Behncke (1866-1937), believed that bombing London, its docks, and the Admiralty building in Whitehall would cause panic in the civilian population, which “may possibly render it doubtful that the war can be continued.” Wilhel… Great Britain also experimented with the possibility of dropping bombs LZ 38 also attacked Dover and Ramsgate on 16–17 May, before returning to bomb Southend on 26–27 May. combined with the psychological power gained by urban bombings meant [50] The following day a single LVG CIV made the first German aeroplane raid on London: hoping to hit the Admiralty, six 10 kg (22 lb) bombs fell between Victoria station and the Brompton Road. 992 and 1,543 pounds (450 and 700 kilograms) of bombs depending on other This exploded on Bartholomew Close near Smithfield Market, destroying several houses and killing two men. [4] Aeroplanes carried out 27 raids, dropping 246,774 lb (111,935 kg) of bombs for the loss of 62 aircraft, resulting in ground casualties of 835 dead, 1,972 injured and £1,418,272 of material damage. As usual weather played a major role and only L 31 under the experienced Heinrich Mathy, on his 15th raid, reached London. Before the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Two Zeppelins intended to attack targets near the River Humber but were diverted by strong winds, and dropped their bombs on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, King's Lynn and the surrounding Norfolk villages. The British public were said to have coped relatively well with this novel threat. The 10-Zeppelin raid achieved very little; four turned back early and the rest wandered over a fog-shrouded landscape before giving up. [86], By the middle of March, the Gotha squadron was once again ready to attack England but had to support the Spring Offensive which started on 21 March, being used to bomb Calais, Dunkirk, Boulogne and troop concentrations and railways. The airships reached the British coast before dark and were sighted by the Leman Tail lightship 48 km (30 mi) north-east of Happisburgh at 20:10, although defending aircraft were not alerted until 20:50. The main targets were industrial cities, army camps and munitions factories. Russian Major-General M.V. The pieces of SL 11 were gathered up and sold by the Red Cross to raise money for wounded soldiers. Germans used guns named Big Berthas, it was the first time in history that long-range cannons were used during war time. L 31 then headed home. the French, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians were developing Eight older airships bombed targets in the Midlands and Northeast, while four M-class Zeppelins (L 30, L 31, L 32, and L 33) attacked London. A new interactive map painstakingly put together from official records has recorded all the bombs that fell on the UK in World War II. Bombing. [55], Kagohl 3 received the first Gotha G.IV aircraft in March, and on 25 May, the squadron commenced Operation Turkenkreuz, sending 23 Gothas to bomb London. : Johns Hopkins University Britain was attacked from the sky for the first time, early in 1915. [49], A raid on 27–28 November avoided London, instead of targeting the Midlands and Tyneside. There was one gun that tormented the Parisians. [62], A further Gotha raid of 22 aircraft was made on 7 July, resulting in 57 deaths and 193 injuries on the ground. The loss of SL 11 ended the German Army's interest in raids on Britain. minds of their enemies. night bombing of German U-boat bases, railway stations, and industrial The U.S. Eighth Air Force attacked the next day with anothe… First Battle of Marne (September of 1914) In September of 1914, the First Battle of Marne marked the end of German incursion into France and the beginning of the trench warfare so widely associated with World War One. [33] A 13-pounder near Broxbourne was put out of action by three bombs dropped from L 15, which continued to London and began bombing over Charing Cross, the first bombs striking the Lyceum Theatre and the corner of Exeter and Wellington Streets, killing 17 and injuring 20. but a strengthening of the Royal Air Force. The Ca 2, which had the range and reliability During the First World War the German air force carried out 103 aerial bombing raids over Great Britain. from having to leave their beds to seek shelter at night, had a far A NEW digital map has painstakingly recorded all the bombs that fell on Britain during World War II. first used it in combat on February 15, 1915, when it left from its and mines that were supporting the war effort. Fifteen defensive sorties were flown against the raiders, only one of whom managed to make visual contact with the enemy. More bombs were dropped on Brixton before crossing the river and dropping 10 bombs on Leyton, killing another eight people and injuring 30. [93][94], The last Zeppelin raid on Britain took place on 5 August 1918, when four Zeppelins bombed targets in the Midlands and the North of England. L 33 dropped a few incendiaries over Upminster before losing its way and making several turns, heading over London and dropping bombs on Bromley at around midnight. During incorporated increasingly more powerful engines, moving successively By the war’s end, the raids had stopped entirely since the hits Its four engines each generated from 100 to 220 horsepower During the opening months of the war, a German pilot flying a Taube regularly dropped bombs on Paris. The bomb-load included a 300-kilogram (660 lb) device, the largest yet carried. None of the naval airships reached London, and only the army's LZ 98 and the newly commissioned Schütte-Lanz SL 11 achieved their objective. [10], The first bombing raids on England were nuisance raids carried out against Channel ports. Smithsonian University Press, 1993. de Syon, Guilllaume. Seven people were killed, 20 injured and £11,673 damage was caused. Nine Zeppelins were sent to Liverpool on the night of 31 January – 1 February. [16] The first Navy attempts to bomb London, made by L 8, failed owing to poor weather. 1916 and was used at first for daylight sea patrols near Flanders. 1914-1918. It was the Germans who first The barrage was also proving hazardous to those on the ground, in that week eight people had been killed and another 67 injured by falling fragments. to cross the Alps and attack Austro-Hungary, flew the war’s first Italian operational factors. An attempt was made to salvage the wreckage of L 70 and most of the structure was brought ashore, providing the British a great deal of technical information. and helpless, just as German military strategists had hoped they would. The best known German strategic bombing campaign during World War I was the campaign against Britain, although strategic bombing raids were carried out or attempted on other fronts. The Zeppelin then came under anti-aircraft fire as it dropped bombs on Aveley and South Ockendon. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1982. Two airships were shot down by the defending aircraft: L 34 was brought down in flames off the coast at Hartlepool by 2nd Lt. Ian Pyott flying a B.E.2c and L 21 was attacked by three aircraft near Yarmouth: Flt Sub-Lt. Edward Pulling was credited with the victory and awarded a DSO, the other pilots receiving the DFC. These devices, weighing 11 kg (25 lb), were filled with thermite and the exterior was wrapped in tarred rope. L 16 dropped up to 50 bombs on Hertford and L 11 scattered a few bombs over Norfolk before heading home. a speed of 85 miles per hour (137 kilometers per hour). This page was last edited on 3 February 2021, at 00:40. them from Britain’s Sopwith Camels, light, maneuverable 13, 1913. [75] The next raid against England was carried out on 29 October, when three aircraft set out, two diverting to Calais because of the weather and the third dropping its bombs on the Essex coast. Most turned back because of mechanical problems or the weather; L 15 was intercepted by Claude Ridley, who was unable to do more than fire a few rounds at extreme range; it was then damaged by anti-aircraft fire over Purfleet before being attacked by Alfred de Bathe Brandon using Ranken darts. However, these were fairly easy to shoot down so in June 1917 Germany began sending the long-range bomber, the Gotha G-V, to Britain. Captain James McCudden was part of the engaging force of 92 aircraft but due to the limited performance of his machine, had no success in intercepting the bombers. The first was made on 26 February but turned back due to headwinds: a second attempt ended when the airship flew below the cloud base to check its position and found itself over Belgian army positions near Ostend: riddled by rifle fire, it came down near Tienen and was destroyed by the wind. [88], The last and largest aeroplane raid of the war took place on the night of 19 May 1918, when 38 Gothas and 3 Giants took off against London. Production levels within the city dropped. buildings or castles. [6][7][8], On 6 August 1914 the German Army Zeppelin Z VI bombed the Belgian city of Liège, killing nine civilians. with little opposition from the Royal Air Force, angering the population The development of the 1 kg (2.2 lb) B-1E "Elektron" incendiary bomb, led to a project, Der Feuerplan (The Fire Plan), which involved the use of the whole German heavy bomber fleet, flying in waves over London and Paris and dropping all the incendiaries that they could carry, until they were either all shot down or the crews were too exhausted to fly. They didn't take cover or dodge". The technological choice, however, was to develop large [13] The raid prompted alarmist stories about German agents using car headlights to guide Zeppelins to their targets,[14] and there was even a rumour that a Zeppelin was operating from a concealed base in the Lake District. These four raids killed six people and injured six, causing property damage estimated at £16,898. In 1914, the Germans launched bombing raids on Britain from the sea and sky. Before the stabilisation of the Western Front, German aircraft made a number of raids on Paris, slightly damaging Notre Dame Cathedral. and made the Germans seem much more powerful and omnipresent in the Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). It could carry On January 19, 1915, the zeppelins struck Great Britain for the first time, dropping bombs on the seaside towns of Great Yarmouth and King’s Lynn. Among the dead were 18 children, killed by a bomb falling on the Upper North Street School primary school in Poplar. All countries used bombers in British artillery [38] One airship, L 19, crashed in the North Sea because of engine failure and damage from Dutch ground–fire: all 16 crew were lost. Air Campaign, August 1914- November 1918. France used its Voison force after May 1915 He fired three drums of incendiaries and succeeded in starting a fire which quickly spread. Front, Shidlovski made his squadron into a self-contained force. [65], On 22 August 15 aircraft set out to attack Margate and Dover. The Navy attempted to follow up the Army's success the following night. [28], Two Army Zeppelins successfully bombed London on 7–8 September: SL 2 dropped bombs on the Isle of Dogs, Deptford, Greenwich and Woolwich, and LZ 74 was forced to drop weight on its approach and scattered 39 bombs over Cheshunt, before heading on to London and dropping bombs on Bermondsey, Rotherhithe and New Cross. Air-raids over the UK during the First World War were sporadic and relatively small scale until late 1916 when the German Air Force formed an ‘England Squadron’ commanded by Captain Ernest Brandenburg and designed to break the fighting spirit of the British people. but not both. Certainly, Two large, rigid air ships, named Zeppelins L3 & L4, after their creator Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin, dropped bombs on eastern coastal towns in … In 1938, Air Commodore Lionel Charlton described the raid as "the beginning of a new epoch in the history of warfare". After he emptied the third drum, the airship began burning from the stern and was quickly enveloped in flames. Squadron: Night Bombing in World War I. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian That allowed the French to counter-attack at the First Battle of Marne. 49 people were killed, 177 injured and damage was £117,317. This listing includes light, medium, and heavy bomber types. Then, “visual marker” aircraft swooped low to drop thousands of flares and fire-target markers. Germany and the Airship, 1900-1939. A total of 61 people were reported killed and 101 injured by the raid. Damage from a bombing campaign against England and worked to develop an airplane planes. These included the first raids on England by the enormous Zeppelin-Staaken Riesenflugzeug of Riesenflugzeug-Abteilung (Rfa) 501. [78], On 28 January 13 Gothas and two Giants set off, six of the Gothas turning back because of poor visibility. Between that time and the November 1917 Russian Revolution, Shidlovski's Warneford was awarded the Victoria Cross for his achievement. The world's On 20 March the three remaining Army airships set off to bomb Paris; one was lost on the return journey. the rear fuselage, and either three or four machine guns protected it [23] On the same night an Army raid of three Zeppelins also failed because of the weather; in an added blow, as the airship returned to Evere they ran into RNAS aircraft flying from Veurne, Belgium. [92] Thousands of Elektron bombs were delivered to forward bomber bases and the operation was scheduled for August and again in early September 1918 but on both occasions, the order to take off was countermanded at the last moment, perhaps because of the fear of Allied reprisals. From then until the end of World War I the German Navy and Army Luftstreitkräfte mounted over 50 bombing raids on the United Kingdom. aircraft specifically designed to carry and release bombs on a target. [91], After this raid, both Kagohl 3 and Rfa 501 were principally used for army support. [36] Fifteen of the fatalities occurred in the town of Tipton. The high number of casualties suffered on all fronts during 1914 came as a huge shock to everyone involved in the First World War. The Navy resumed raids on Britain in August. Flying from Evere LZ 38 crossed the English coast near Margate at 21:42 before turning west over Southend. The 152 deaths included 130 naval recruits whose dormitory was hit, the worst bombing incident of the war. [45], The biggest raid to date was launched on 2–3 September, with 12 German Navy airships and four from the German Army taking part. Throughout 1915 and 1916, Zeppelin raids became a regular feature of life. [3], Airships made about 51 bombing raids on Britain during the war. Four aircraft from Rfa 501 took off, one turning back before reaching England and casualties and damage were light. Over a hundred defensive sorties were flown, resulting in one Gotha being shot down after being attacked by two Sopwith Camels from the 40 Squadron RFC, flown by Second Lieutenants Charles Banks and George Hackwill, the first victory for night fighters against a heavier-than-air bomber over Britain; both pilots were awarded the DFC. Wynn, Humphrey: The Black Cat World War I on the side of the Allies, and while overall poorly prepared Organization, Standard French intelligence linked the gas to a factory in Ludwigshafen, and base at Jablonna, Poland, and raided a German base in East Prussia. The French efforts were quickly However experiments undertaken in 1916 using a mixture of explosive and incendiary rounds were promising, and the use of this mixture of Pomeroy, Brock, and Buckingham bullets brought the defending aircraft their first victories, using the technique of firing machine guns upwards at 45 degrees into the airship.[35]. however, since it carried only two defensive machines guns. The Caproni Center for History in the Schools, world's The first Zeppelin raid occurred on 19 January 1915, when bombs were dropped on Sheringham, Yarmouth, … After an ineffective attack by L 10 on Tyneside on 15–16 June the short summer nights discouraged further raids for some months, and the remaining Army Zeppelins were reassigned to the Eastern and Balkan fronts. In the first month of the war, Germany formed the "Ostend Carrier Pigeon Detachment", a cover name for an aeroplane unit to be used for the bombing of the English Channel ports. 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